Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey and cultural and economic center. It is located in Bosphorus strait and sea of Marmara. Bosphorus separates two Asia and Europe and Istanbul is the only big city of world which is located in two continents. Istanbul is one of most holy of world cities. Part of Istanbul fascination is its location, where Europe connects to Asia via Bosphorussea and Istanbul’s being connective bridge between two continents makes it the unique city of world. It is where Black sea mixes Aegean waters. East and west in cultural point of Turkey’s biggest metropolis are integrated. Golden horn natural port or gulf is located in this city. This metropolis was chosen as cultural city of Europe in 2010. Istanbul has been always the center of economic living in this country which is due to international connective of land and marine borders. It includes about 20% of Turkey’s industrial work and 38% of Turkey’s industrial working space. Meanwhile 55% of the products of this city is obtained from business and 45% of business is obtained from whole selling and 21.2% of Turkey products are obtained from national mass products. 40% of collected taxes in Turkey and 27.5% of Turkey’s national products are done in this city. By 1980, national gross production in Istanbul has grown 5% in average yearly.
Nowadays, Istanbul is industrial center of Turkey. Most of main manufacturing plans are focused in this city. Istanbul and its surrounding states produce cotton, fruit, olive oil, silk and Tobacoo. Food processing, producing textile, oil products, plastic and metal materials, leather, chemical, electronic, glass, and machine materials, paper and paper products are the important industrial products in this city.
Other main perspective of Istanbul economy is tourism. There are thousands of other hotels and industries related to tourism in Istanbul which serve professionally to tourists and visitors. This city at first was known as Byzantium. In 196, SeptimusSorus, Rome Imperator occupied Byzantium upon attaching to it and many Romans immigrated to this city. Imperator’s struggle for naming this city as his son’s name “Agosta Antonia” was unsuccessful and before changing the city’s name to Constantinople, they used Nova Roma for it. In 1930, it was officially named as Istanbul. Istanbul which was common among Turkish before its conquer is originated from IstimPioli in Greece means city or city center. In 1770, third MostafaSultan recognized it officially upon mintage with has Istanbul’s name which is replaced by Constantinople. During republic and since 28 Mar. 1930, Turkey post office asked all countries of world to use Istanbul in their correspondences. Many Iranian choose Istanbul for shopping especially cloth or Turkish fabric which has one of the best sewing in the world. In this regard, it should be said that Istanbul is a good choice for shopping. Istanbul has many shoppingcenter and is popular among the ones who are willing to purchase in the world. one of the shopping centers is Akmerkez. This shopping center include cloth stores for men, women and children, types of toys, glasses, electronic devices and mainly what you want can be found in this market. One of the good markets in Istanbul for shoppingis a covered bazaar named as KapariCharshi. There is more than 4000 stores in this bazaar. Guards, carpet sellers, goldsmiths, cloth sellers and different parts which diversify shopping in Istanbul. According to the experts, KapariCharshi is one of the important shopping centers in Istanbul. Handicrafts, carpet, ceramics, bronze dishes and many others include Istanbul shopping. In western part of this market which is old Darbdastan, types of ancient things are sold. For shopping in Istanbul, there is another bazaar named as MisarCharshi. This bazaar is involved in selling spices. This bazaar is smelled by different spices. In Istanbul art markets like Mohammad Aghandischool which has been constructed in 18th century of Jafar Agha school which is related to 16th century, you can benefit handicrafts of big artists.
The most important shopping in Istanbul is maybe cloth and fabric. For shopping cloth and fabric, the best areas are Esteghlal St., Jomhouriat St., and Romali St. Esteghlal St., is one of the well-known streets in Istanbul which reaches to Taksim square. There we can find the latest achievements in cloth, bag and shoes. AtakuyGaleria shopping center is located in Atakuy of akmerkez and Karvosel shopping center is in Kirkur area. Shopping in Istanbul is not ended here. Shopping centers like Atlas mall, Capitul shopping center in Asian part of Istanbul and Baghdad St., and Baharieh St., are importuning for shopping. Bookbinders market named as sahaflar and China Alti among Turkish in Beyazit is one of the other shopping centers. Herher market is the shopping center of furniture and home decoration. The other markets are Bazaar Rooz of Chokorjoma in Jahangir area, and Boyokhamam is in Eskudar region.
Istanbul areas are divided into three main parts:
1- Old Istanbul peninsula covers districts and areas of Amin Ono and Fateh. These regions are located in northern coast of Golden Horn or gulf which separates the old center from north and younger parts toward Europe. Historical peninsula of Constantinople ends in west. The peninsula is surrounded by Marmara sea in south and Bosphour is East.
2- North of golden horn are historical area of Neioghlu and Beshiktash which is the residing place of latest Sultan and chains of old villages like Ortaki and Bik are continued in Bosphour coasts. In European and Asian parts of Bosphour, rick Istanbul people make big beautiful wooden buildings which are named as Yali and are used as summer dwelling.
3- Eskudar and Kadikuy are located in Asian part. There are independent cities and nowadays modern residential and commercial regions are constructed in them and about one third of Istanbul population lives there.
Increasing the growth of department and residential buildings is mostly in northern area of European part and especially in business, Maslak, Lunt, Etiler shopping centers which are located between Bosphour bridge and Sultan Ah,adFateh bridge.
Affiliated growth of Istanbul was occurred in second half of 20th century. In these years, the important part of city was development upon illegal construction. In recent years, these regions were destructed and replaced by mass buildings such as my world, Olya court, and similar projects which are conducted by governmental companies. Most public centers for swimming in city are in Bakarkuy, KojokJekmejehSary and Yusfours. Out of city there are princess island of marmar sea, Siliveri and Tozla like Kilious and Sileh in black sea. Princess, Adalari islands are group princes of the islands of marmara sea, south of kartal and pendik. Pine and sik neoclassic rock pine and art of new era, the method of big summer buildings of Ottaman era in 19th and 20th centuries, horse carriage and fish restaurants compose a general aim. They can reach from Aminono and Kartal via boat and high speed paths. 9 islands are located in 4 regions. Sileh is a constructed coast shelter and region of Turkey in black sea which is located in 50-km of Istanbul. Kilious is a clam coast shelter which is in northern European gate of Bosphour in black sea. it is a good place for swimming. In previous years, is was a public entertainment place among people in Istanbul. Kilious is a coast park together with restaurants. Newsweek magazine named Istanbul as the Europe’s connecting city recently. After severeal decades in trying to reaching east, Istanbul honors was in redetection of a modern and new recognition, its European part is one of the coldest cities in world and have many beauties. The city still has cloudy weather accompanied with markets, churches of eastern Rome and ottoman buildings. Istanbul has two international airports. The biggest airport, Ataturk international airport is located in Yesilkuy in 24-km of city which is used in European party, while, at now, it is in the city. New airport, SaiihaJukin airport is located in eastern 20-km of Asian part and eastern 45-km of European part.
Public transportation is mainly done via private taxi, van tax, minibus, bus, tramway, light urban train, cable train, types of boats and ships.
All taxies in this city are in yellow color and computing the freight is done by taxi meter, though taxi freight is high is this city. The primary rate of taxi meter in entering is about 2 USD. After 10 km, it is about 20 to 30 USF due to traffic status. These taxies only are used as privately.
Other taxies are vans which are named as Delmoush in Istanbul. There are yellow and has 10 person capacity and are used jointly by passengers. These taxies are working in special lines and their freight are fixed which is 1.5 TL (about 1 USD) for a person. They do not have station during their path and are stopped upon passenger’s request.
Active minibus in Istanbul has 15 person capacity and move in special paths. They do not have special stations during path like vans and are stopped upon passengers’ requests. Their freight is 1 USD (1.5 TL).
Buses in Istanbul usually supply regular service for passengers. Some of the buses are belonged to governmental sector and some to private sector. The freight of all busesare same and 2.5 TL. Passengers should use E-tickets for paying freight.